Updated: Nov 23, 2020
The practice of immunisation dates back hundreds of years. Buddhist monks drank snake venom to confer immunity to snake bite and variolation (smearing of a skin tear with cowpox to confer immunity to smallpox) was practiced in 17th century China.
Edward Jenner is considered the modern founder of vaccinology in the West in 1796, after he inoculated a 13 year-old-boy with vaccinia virus (cowpox), and demonstrated immunity to smallpox. Vaccine against smallpox was developed 1798. That disease is now eradicated.
Louis Pasteur’s developed live attenuated cholera vaccine (1897) and inactivated anthrax vaccine (1904) in humans . The Bacillis-Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination, is something most of you have received to protect you from tuberculosis. The first vaccination is given soon after birth, and continues up to five years of age.
Louis Pasteur by Finnish painter Albert Edelfelt, Musée d'Orsay, Paris
The Mantoux test is an intradermal injection of purified protein derivate from tuberculosis cells. This was originally developed by the German scientist and physician Robert Koch 1890. A person who has been exposed to the bacteria is expected to mount an immune response in the skin containing the bacterial proteins. The response is a classical example of delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTH), a type IV of hypersensitivities. T cells and myeloid cells are attracted to the site of reaction in the timeframe of 1-3 days and generate local inflammation.
In 1923, Alexander Glenny perfected a method to inactivate tetanus toxin with formaldehyde. Often patients are given tetanus vaccine following suspicious wounds and bites by animals. The same method was used to develop a vaccine against diphtheria in 1926. Pertussis vaccine development took considerably longer, with a whole cell vaccine first licensed for use in the US in 1948.
Viral tissue culture methods developed from 1950-1985, and led to the advent of the Salk (inactivated) polio vaccine and the Sabin (live attenuated oral) polio vaccine. Mass polio immunisation has now eradicated the disease from many regions around the world
Attenuated strains of measles, mumps and rubella were developed for inclusion in vaccines. Measles is currently the next possible target for elimination via vaccination.
One reason people are unfortunately increasingly suspicious about vaccines, is the fact that manufacturers can not be prosecuted. If you end up with serious side-effects or even die, they walk away smiling with their immunity against prosecution. This is a serious blow to the need to truly care for people's health. Are peoples lives of no concern?
The 42 U.S. Code § 300aa–22 - Standards of responsibility clearly states: No vaccine manufacturer shall be liable in a civil action for damages arising from a vaccine-related injury or death. This has made the industry immune against any civil actions.
A complete catastrophe for many young Swedes was the narcolepsy caused by Pandemrix given against influenza 2009 - 2010. The vaccine contains alpha-tocopherol used against cancer cells. These young people were healthy but received a life long suffering due to Pandemrix. This amazing Swedish study proved the case.
Molecular genetics now sets the scene for a different future for vaccinology, but the reluctance to new vaccines, including COVID is real. This is about big money for sure.